Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations

antioxidant

a substance that protects us from the dangerous free radicals

biopsy

the removal of small samples of tissue for analysis

catheter

a small tube inserted into the bladder, usually via the penis

Gleason score

the rating of the aggressiveness of the cancer

impotence

the inability to achieve a useful erection

incontinence

the inability to control urination or bowels

laparoscopy

looking into the abdomen by means of a tiny camera

lymph nodes

small organs that filter and destroy harmful bacteria and viruses

metastasis

the spread of cancer outside the primary site

nocturia

the need to urinate frequently at night

oncologist

a specialist in the medical treatment of cancer

orchidectomy

an operation to remove the testicles

pathologist

a scientist who studies the causes and effects of diseases, especially one who examines laboratory samples of body tissue for diagnostic or forensic purposes

perineum

the area between the scrotum and the anus

prostatectomy

an operation to remove the prostate

radiologist

a person who uses X-rays or other high-energy radiation, especially a doctor specializing in radiology.

seminal vesicles

organs that contribute fluid to the ejaculate

testosterone

a male hormone secreted by the testicles

urethra

the tube through which urine and semen flow

urologist

a specialist in disorders of the kidneys/bladder/prostate systems

   

Abbreviations

 

ADT

androgen deprivation therapy

BMD

bone mineral density test

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlargement of the prostate)

CT

computerized tomography scan

DRE

digital rectal examination

EBRT

external beam radiotherapy

ED

erectile dysfunction (problems with erections)

HIFU

high-intensity focused ultrasound

HR

hormone relapsed (prostate cancer)

IMRT/IGRT

intensity modulated/image guided radiation therapy

LHRH

luteinising Hormone-Releasing Hormone

LRP

laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

MDT

multi-disciplinary team

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging scan

NICE

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

PET

positron emission tomography – a form of body scanning

PSA

prostate specific antigen

RALP

robotically assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy

RP

radical prostatectomy

TCAP

targeted cryo-ablation of the prostate (i.e. cryotherapy)

TNM

tumour/nodes/metastases: a scale for measuring tumour spread

TRUS

trans-rectal ultrasound scan

TURP

trans-urethral resection of the prostate (an operation to treat an enlargemed prostate)